About the Partnership

Since its inception over 50 years ago, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been entrusted with mitigating pollution and climate change, enforcing environmental laws, conducting timely chemical risk assessments, and incentivizing business innovations. The agency is charged with enforcing more than 30 laws and executive orders designed to safeguard human health and the environment. But, EPA has been chronically underfunded and understaffed for the past decade, with FY 2021 spending nearly half, in real terms, of what it was in the 1980s, jeopardizing the agency’s ability to enforce existing regulations. 

The Partnership for the Future of EPA advocates for increased funding for EPA and seeks to educate policymakers about EPA’s responsibilities, economic impact, organizational and infrastructure needs, and solutions to the agency’s challenges. An under-resourced EPA leaves consumers unprotected and delays the introduction of innovative new products. Adequate funding and robust congressional oversight will empower EPA to execute its mission of protecting human health and the environment.

Congressional Oversight

EPA’s responsibilities put the agency under the jurisdiction of more than two dozen House (e.g., Energy & Commerce, Appropriations) and Senate committees (e.g., Appropriations, Environment & Public Works) and subcommittees.


(1970, amended in 1977 and 1990) originally passed in 1964, authorizes EPA to regulate hazardous air pollutants.


(1972) amended the Federal Water Pollution Control act of 1948 to regulate pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States.


(1976, updated in 2016) mandates EPA with protecting the public from “unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment” by regulating the manufacture and testing requirements of chemicals.


(1980) created a federal “Superfund” to clean up hazardous-waste sites across the country.


initially passed in 1947 revised in 1972 with the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act and 1996 by the Food Quality Protection Act, provides for the regulation of pesticide distribution and sales.


Additional Information

EPA is partially or wholly responsible for administering over 30 laws and executive orders, including:


  • Atomic Energy Act (AEA)
  • Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act
  • Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act
  • Clean Air Act (CAA)
  • Clean Water Act (CWA) (original title: Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972)
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  • Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
  • Endangered Species Act (ESA)
  • Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA)
  • Energy Policy Act
  • Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
  • Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments
  • Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
  • Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act)
  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
  • National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA)
  • Noise Control Act
  • Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA)
  • Ocean Dumping Act – See Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
  • Oil Pollution Act (OPA)
  • Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (PRIA)
  • Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • Shore Protection Act (SPA)
  • Superfund – See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
  • Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
  • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

Executive Orders

  • EO 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations
  • EO 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks
  • EO 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
  • EO 14008: Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad
  • EO 13990: Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis

EPA's Budget

Congress funds EPA through the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bills.

Congress funds EPA through the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bills. Congress appropriated EPA $10.135 billion for FY 2023, an increase of $576 million over FY 2022, but nearly $1.75 billion less than the FY 2023 President’s Budget request. Approximately half of EPA’s budget is earmarked for grants made to state environmental programs and nonprofits.

Additional Budget Information

Discretionary spending is appropriated between 10 accounts:

EPA’s full time equivalent (FTE) employees numbered 14,581 in FY 2022, with staffing levels for the previous five years the lowest since the 1980s and well below the 30-year average of 16,531 FTEs.

The Bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (P.L. 117-58), or IIJA, provided EPA with over $60 billion comprising 19 appropriations to be dispersed fiscal years 2022 through 2026. Of this funding,

  • $54 billion, or 83%, is allocated to Water Infrastructure programs
  • $5.4 billion, or 9%, is allocated to cleanup, revitalization, and recycling efforts, including Superfund
  • $5 billion, or 8%, is allocated to Cleaner School Buses
  • $100 million, or less than 1%, is allocated to pollution prevention efforts
  • EPA’s OIG will receive $270 million over the same five fiscal years

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (P.L. 117-169) appropriated $41.5 billion to support 24 new and existing EPA-administered programs.

  • $27 billion to Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund, a new program to fund competitive grants through FY 2024
  • $5 billion Climate Pollution Reduction Grants
  • $3 billion in Environmental and Climate Justice Block Grants
  • $3 billion in Grants to Reduce Air Pollution at Ports
  • $1.55 billion for the Methane Emissions Reduction Program
  • $1 billion for Clean Heavy-Duty Vehicles

How is EPA Structured?

EPA is managed by 12 divisions and 10 regions.

Get Engaged

For information on joining the Partnership for the Future of EPA, please contact
Mike Gruber, Senior Vice President, Government Relations & Public Policy, HCPA at

Join the Coalition